JS Research group PD Dr. Jürgen Schmitz

last update: October 2016

Research Topics:

      RNOmics      RNomics: Exploring the World of Non-Protein Coding (npc) RNAs   

With experimental high-throughput cDNA library screening and biocomputational methods we identify and characterize novel npcRNAs from diverse model organisms. In contrast to mRNAs, which are templates for translating proteins, npcRNAs exhibit various functions in different compartments and developmental stages of the cell. Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), one of the largest classes of npcRNAs, guide post-transcriptional modifications of other RNAs that are crucial for appropriate RNA folding as well as for RNA-RNA and RNA-protein interactions. Detailed comparisons of paralog snoRNAs revealed, in addition to trans-duplication, a novel, cis-duplication distribution strategy with insertions near to the original loci. Some snoRNAs coevolved with their modification target sites, demonstrating the close interaction of complementary regions. Some target sites modified by snoRNAs are changed, added or lost, documenting a high degree of evolutionary plasticity of npcRNAs. The evolutionary history of npcRNAs in mammalian species is one of our main subjects to explore the world of RNomics.

Mammals Phylogenomics: Retroposed Elements as Archives for Evolutionary History

Reconstruction of the placental mammalian (eutherian) evolutionary tree has undergone diverse revisions and numerous aspects remain hotly debated. Initial hierarchical divisions based on morphology contained many misgroupings due to features that evolved independently by similar selection processes. Molecular analyses corrected many of these misgroupings and the superordinal hierarchy of placental mammals was recently assembled into four clades. However, long or rapid evolutionary periods as well as directional mutation pressure can produce molecular homoplasies, similar characteristics lacking common ancestors.
Retroposed elements, by contrast, integrate randomly into genomes with negligible probabilities of the same element integrating independently into orthologous positions in different species. Thus, presence/absence analyses of these elements are a superior strategy for molecular systematics.



Functional Genomics: Retroposons - En Route to Protein-Coding Function

Exonization is defined as the creation of a new exon in response to changes in untranslated regions of a gene. Insertions of transposed elements are frequent flash points and substrates for exonizations. Exonized sequences of transposed elements are cotranscribed via alternative splicing and provide a potential source for novel genetic material.

Group Members:

Jürgen Schmitz group leader / PI MGSE 
Martin Kiefmann technician
Liliya Doronina PhD student MGSE
Dr. Gennady Churakov associated
Prof. Andrey Kuritzin associated
Dr. Andreas Matzke associated

Previous Group Members:

Anja Zemann technician
Petra Berkes technician
Mirjam Sommer technician
Claudia Marker technician
Ursula Jordan technician
Angela Noll PhD student postdoc, German Primate Center, Göttingen, Germany
Gennady Churakov PhD/postdoc postdoc, IEB - Evolutionary Cell Biology, Münster, Germany
Alexander Suh PhD/postdoc assistant professor, Department of Ecology and Genetics, University Uppsala, Sweden
Gerrit Hartig PhD student software developer, Abbott Informatics, Bochum, Germany
Andreas Matzke PhD student associated
Maria Nilsson postdoc postdoc, Senckenberg Research Institute, Frankfurt, Germany
Manoj Kumar PhD student senior research scientist, Sai Life Sciences, Pune, Maharashtra, India
Jan Ole Kriegs PhD/postdoc museum director, LWL-Museum of Natural History, Münster, Germany
Maren Möller-Krull PhD/postdoc senior research scientist, Amedes Genetics, Hamburg, Germany

Jingjing Shi student WHK
Tabea Höhmann Master student
Angeliki Datsi student SHK
Sandra Bachg student SHK
Maximiliane Sparwel student WHK
Andrea Kemter student WHK
Daniela Ostkotte student SHK
Tim Pock student SHK
Maik Zemann student SHK
Roger Tseng US-student
Van Tran US-student
Denise Kelsey US-student
Erin Arms US-student
Mirjan Petrusma US-student

Selected Press Reports:

     Tarsius Genome 2016

              Colugo Genome 2016

              KKSC Statistics 2016
              Vervet Genome 2015

              Software: GPAC 2015

      Crocodilian Genomes 2014

       Hepatitis 2013                   
      Tarsius 2013                     
             Bernhard-Rensch Preis 2013   
      Birds 2011                         
              Evolutionsgedanken 2011       
      Marsupials 2010               
      Platypus Genome 2008                   
               Klaus Tschira-Preis 2008         
               Laonastes 2007                         
               Tupaia 2007                              
               Mammals 2006                         


Suh, A., Schmitz, J., Kriegs, J. O., Brosius, J. (2012) Molecular sexing of avian subjects. United States Patent Application 20120288856 

Suh, A., Schmitz, J., Kriegs, J. O., Brosius, J. (2011) Molecular sexing of avian subjects. European Patent Application EP2481812          


Schmitz J:      Forschungsinitiativproject, FIP n7/41 TU Berlin, 1994
Schmitz J:      Leuchtturmprojekt. Förderverein WWU, 2006
Kriegs JO:     Klaus-Tschira-Preis für verständliche Wissenschaftim Fach Biologie, 2008
Suh A:           German Ornithologists’ Society (DO-G) Council Award: Best student talk, 2011
Suh A:           Bernhard Rensch Award of the German Society of Biological Systematics (GfBS): Best biosystematic dissertation, 2013


2017-2019     SCHM1469/10-1
                      DFG: Retrogenomic software and databases to solve evolutionary questions

                      PI: Dr. Jürgen Schmitz

2012-2016     SCHM1469/3-2
                      DFG: The power of ancient retroposed sequences to resolve problematic mammalian evolutionary questions
                      PI: Dr. Jürgen Schmitz

2012-2014     University Münster/Münster Graduate School (MGSE)
                      Special support by one PhD position/Medical Dekanat FB5                
                      Host-parasite interactions/horizontal gene transfer
                      PI: Dr. Jürgen Schmitz

2009-2013     DFG KR3639/1-1
                      LINE-Retroposition and Phylogeny in Birds (Aves)
                      PIs: Dr. Jürgen Schmitz (Dr. Jan Ole Kriegs (KR) left the Institute)

2009-2012     DFG SCHM1469/4-1
                      Technical Assistance
                      PI: Dr. Jürgen Schmitz

2009-2011     University Medical Dekanat FB5 (UKM) Muenster
                      Special support by two additional TA positions
PI: Dr. Jürgen Schmitz

2008-2011     DFG SCHM1469/3-1 MAM
                      Using retroposed elements to reconstruct the mammalian phylogenetic tree
                      PI: Dr. Jürgen Schmitz

2011              DFG SCHM1469/5-1
                      bilateral cooperation Russia/Germany
                      PI: Dr. Jürgen Schmitz

2011              Research Funding Medical Faculty University Münster
                      Student assistance: Molecular evolution in birds
                      PI: Dr. Jürgen Schmitz

2010              DFG NI1284/1-1 (transferred to BiK-Frankfurt)
                      Genome-wide analysis of retroposons: Phylogenetic markers for reconstructing their Evolution
                      PIs: Dr. Maria Nilsson and Dr. Jürgen Schmitz

2006-2008     Support Initiative University of Münster (Leuchtturmprojekt)
                      High Priority Project: Jumping genes in a living fossil
                      PI: Dr. Jürgen Schmitz

2008              NGFN 0313358A (special support)
                      RNomics Meets Proteomics
                      PIs: Prof. Jürgen Brosius, Dr. Jürgen Schmitz

2003-2007     Conservation, Research and Education Opportunities (CREO)                    
                      Teaching project for American students from populations under represented in science
                      PIs: Dr. Jürgen Schmitz, Dr. Django Sussman

2006-2007     NGFN 0313358A
                      RNomics Meets Proteomics
                      PIs: Prof. Jürgen Brosius, Dr. Jürgen Schmitz

2005-2007     DFG SCHM1469/2-1 ROD
                      Molecular Evolution and SINE Retroposition in Rodents
                      PIs: Dr. Jürgen Schmitz, Dr. Jürgen Brosius

Software Development:

Retrogenomics UNI-muenster.de

TinT (Transposition in Transposition finder)

GPAC (Genome Presence/Absence Compiler)

KKSC  (Presence/Absence Data Significance Test)

TSDfinder (Genome Target Site Duplication finder)

Editorial Board Member:

Journal of Molecular Evolution

Selected Publications:

68. Schmitz J, Noll A, Raabe C, Churakov G, Voss R, Kiefmann M, Rozhdestvensky T, Brosius J, Baertsch R, Clawson H, Roos C, Zimin A, Minx P, Montague MJ, Wilson RK, Warren WC
Genome sequence of the basal haplorrhine primate Tarsius syrichta reveals unusual insertions
Nat Commun 7:12997 (pdf)
67. Mason VC, Li G, Minx P, Schmitz J, Churakov G, Doronina L, Melin AD, Dominy NJ, Lim NT-L, Springer MS, Wilson RK, Warren WC, Helgen KM, Murphy WJ
Genomic analysis reveals hidden biodiversity within colugos, the sister group to primates
Sci Adv 2:e1600633 (pdf)
66. Kuritzin A, Kischka T, Schmitz J, Churakov G
Incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization statistics for large-scale retroposon insertion data
PLoS Computation Biol 12:e1004812 (pdf)
65. Warren WC, Jasinska AJ, Garcia-perez R, Svardal H, Tomlinson C, Rocchi M, Archidiacono N, Capozzi O, Minx P, Montague MJ, Kyung K, Hillier LDW, Kremitzki M, Graves T, Chiang C, Hughes J, Tran N, Wang Y, Ramensky V, Choi O, Jung YJ, Schmitt CA, Juretic N, Wasserscheid J, Turner TR, Wiseman RW, Tuscher JJ, Karl JA, Schmitz JE, Zahn R, O’Connor DH, Redmond E, Nisbett A, Jacquelin B, Müller-Trutwin MC, Brenchley JM, Dione M, Antonio M, Schroth GP, Kaplan JR, Jorgensen MJ, Thomas GWC, Hahn MW, Raney B, Aken B, Schmitz J, Churakov G, Noll A, Stanyon R, Webb D, Thibaud-Nissen F, Nordborg M, Marques-Bonet T, Dewar K, Weinstock GM, Wilson RK, Freimer NB
The genome of the vervet (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus)
Genome Res 25:1921-1933 (pdf)
64. Doronina L, Churakov G, Shi J, Brosius J, Baertsch R, Clawson H, Schmitz J
Exploring massive incomplete lineage sorting in arctoids (Laurasiatheria, Carnivora)
Mol Biol Evol 32:3194-3204
63. Catania F, Schmitz J
Review: On the path to genetic novelties: insights from RNA splicing and programmed DNA elimination
WIREs RNA 6:547-561  (pdf)
62. Noll A, Raabe C, Churakov G, Brosius J, Schmitz J
Ancient traces of tailless retropseudogenes in therian genomes
Genome Biol Evol 7:889-900 (pdf)
61. Suh A, Churakov G, Ramakodi MP, Platt II RN, Jurka J, Kojima KK, Caballero J, Smit A, Vliet KA, Hoffmann FG, Brosius J, Green RE, Braun EL, Ray DA, Schmitz J
Multiple lineages of ancient CR1 retroposons shaped the early genome evolution of amniotes
Genome Biol Evol 7:205-217 (pdf)
60. Noll A, Grundmann N, Churakov G, Brosius J, Makalowski W, Schmitz J
Software: GPAC - Genome Presence/Absence Compiler: a web application to comparatively visualize multiple genome-level changes
Mol Biol Evol 32:275-286
59. Green RE, Braun EL, Armstrong J, Earl D, Nguyen N, Hickey G, Vandewege MW, St John JA, Capella-Gutiérrez S, Castoe TA, Kern C, Fujita MK, Opazo JC, Jurka J, Kojima KK, Caballero J, Hubley RM, Smit AF, Platt RN, Lavoie CA, Ramakodi MP, Finger Jr. JW, Suh A, Isberg SR, Miles L, Chong AY, Jaratlerdsiri W, Gongora J, Moran C, Iriarte A, McCormack J, Burgess SC, Edwards SV, Lyons E, Williams C, Breen M, Howard JT, Gresham CR, Peterson DG, Schmitz J, Pollock PD, Haussler D, Triplett EW, Zhang G, Irie N, Jarvis ED, Brochu CA, Schmidt CJ, McCarthy FM, Faircloth BC, Hoffmann FG, Glenn TC, Gabaldón T, Paten B, and Ray DA
Three crocodilian genomes reveal ancestral patterns of evolution among archosaurs
Science 346:1254449 (pdf)
58. Wennmann DO, Schmitz J, Wehr MC, Krahn MP, Koschmal N, Gromnitza S, Schulze U, Weide T, Chekuri A, Skryabin BV, Gerke V, Pavenstädt H, Duning K, Kremerskothen J
Evolutionary and molecular facts link the WWC protein family to Hippo signaling
Mol Biol Evol 31:1710-1723
57. Hartig G, Churakov G, Warren W, Brosius J, Makalowski W, Schmitz J
Retrophylogenomics place tarsiers on the evolutionary branch of anthropoids
Nat Sci Rep 3:1756 (pdf)
56. Suh A, Brosius J, Schmitz J, Kriegs JO
The genome of a Mesozoic paleovirus reveal the ancient evolution of hepatitis B viruses
Nat Commun 4:1791 (pdf)
55. Zemann A, Churakov G, Donellan S, Grützner F, Fangquing Z, Borsius J, Schmitz J
Ancestry of the Australian termitivorous numbat
Mol Biol Evol 30:1041-1045 (pdf)
54. Arkhipova IR, Batzer MA, Brosius J, Feschotte C, Moran JV, Schmitz J, Jurka J
Genomic impact of eukaryotic transposable elements
Mobile DNA 3:19 (pdf)
53. Suh A, Kriegs JO, Donnellan S, Brosius J, Schmitz J
A universal method for the study of CR1 retroposons in non-model bird genomes
Mol Biol Evol 29:2899-2903 (pdf)
52. Schmitz J
Book chapter Repetitive DNA: SINEs as driving forces in genome evolution
Genome Dynamics. Repetitive DNA, 7:91-107 (pdf)
51. Suh A, Schmitz J, Kriegs JO, Brosius J
New pair of oligonucleotides consisting of first and second oligonucleotide comprising consecutive nucleotides of specific sequence, useful for determination of sex of avian subject and for sexing of avian subject
Patent Number: EB2481812-A1
50. Matzke A, Churakov G, Berkes P, Arms E, Kelsey D, Brosius J, Kriegs JO, Schmitz J
Retroposon insertion patterns of neoavian birds: strong evidence for an extensive incomplete lineage sorting era
Mol Biol Evol 29:1497-1501 (pdf)
49. Erpenbeck D, Schmitz J, Churakov G, Huchon D, Wöhrheide G, Degnan BM
First evidence of miniature transposable elements in Porifera
Hydrobiology 687:43-47 (pdf)
48. Schmitz J, Brosius J
Review: Exonization of transposed elements: A challenge and opportunity for evolution
Biochimie 93:1928-1934 (pdf)
47. Suh A, Paus M, Kiefmann M, Churakov G, Franke FA, Brosius J, Kriegs JO, Schmitz J
Mesozoic retroposons reveal parrots as the closest living relatives of passerine birds
Nat Commun 2:443 (pdf)
46. Suh A, Kriegs JO, Brosius J, Schmitz J
Retroposon insertions and the chronology of avian sex chromosome evolution
Mol Biol Evol, 28:2993-2997 (pdf)
45. Churakov G, Grundmann N, Kuritzin A, Brosius J, Makałowski W, Schmitz J
Software: A novel web-based TinT application and the chronology of the primate Alu retroposon activity
BMC Evol Biol, 10:376 (pdf)
44. Kriegs JO, Zemann A, Churakov G, Matzke A, Ohme M, Zischler H, Brosius J, Kryger U, Schmitz J
Retroposon insertions provide insights into deep lagomorph evolution
Mol Biol Evol, 27:2678-2681 (pdf)
43. Nilsson M, Churakov G, Sommer M, Ngoc Van T, Zemann A, Brosius J, Schmitz J
Tracking marsupial evolution using archaic genomic retroposon insertions
PLoS Biol 8:e1000436 (pdf)
42. Churakov G, Sadasivuni M, Rosenbool K, Huchon D, Brosius J, Schmitz J
Rodent Evolution: Back to the Root
Mol Biol Evol 27:1315-1326 (pdf)
41. Churakov G, Kriegs JO, Baertsch R, Zemann A, Brosius J, Schmitz J
Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals
Genome Res 19:868-875 (pdf)
40. Moeller-Krull M, Zemann A, Roos C, Brosius J, Schmitz J
Beyond DNA: RNA-editing and steps toward Alu-exonization in primates
J Mol Biol 382:601-609 (pdf)
Warren WC, Hillier LW, Graves JAM, Birney E, Ponting CP, Grutzner F, Belov K, Miller W, Clarke L, Chinwalla AT, Yang S-P, Heager A, Clarke D, Miethke P, Waters P, Veyrunes F, Fulton L, Graves T, Puente X, Lopez-Otin C, Ordonez GR, Eichler EE,  Deakin JE, Thompson K, Kirby P, Papenfuss AT, Wakefield M, Olender T, Lancet D, Huttley GA, Smit AFA, Renfree M, Temple-Smith P, Batzer MA, Jerilyn A, Walker JA, Konkel MK, Harris RS, Taylor J, Whittington CM, Gemmell N, Buschiazzo E, Jentzsch IV, Merkel A, Schmitz J, Zemann A, Churakov G, Kriegs JO, Brosius J, Murchison E, Sachidanandam R, Smith C, Stark A, Hannon G, Rens W, Ferguson-Smith M, Lefevre C, Sharp J, Nicholas KR, Ray D, Kube M, Reinhardt R, Pringle TH, Flicek P, Washington University Genome Sequencing Center, Mardis ER, Wilson RK
Genome analysis of the platypus reveals unique signatures of evolution
Nature 453:175-184 (pdf)
38. Schmitz J, Zemann A, Churakov G, Kuhl H, Grützner F, Reinhardt R, Brosius J
Retroposed SNOfall – A mammalian-wide comparison of platypus snoRNAs
Genome Res 18:1005-1010 (pdf)
37. Qiu H, Taudien S, Herlyn H, Schmitz J, Zhou Y, Chen G, Roberto R, Rocchi M, Platzer M, Wojnowski L
CYP3 phylogenomics: Evidence for positive selection of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 18:53-66 (pdf)
36. Kriegs JO, Matzke A, Churakov G, Kuritzin A, Mayr G, Brosius J, Schmitz J
Waves of genomic hitchhikers characterize the evolution of gamebirds (Aves: Galliformes)
BMC Evol Biol 7:190 (pdf)

35. Möller-Krull M, Delsuc F, Churakov G, Marker C, Superina M, Brosius J, Douzery EJP, Schmitz J
Retroposed elements and their flanking regions resolve the evolutionary history of xenarthran mammals (armadillos, anteaters and sloths)
Mol Biol Evol 24:2573-2582 (pdf)
34. Chen X, Collins L, Rozhdestvensky TS, Schmitz J, Penny D
Combined experimental and computional approach to identify non-protein-coding RNAs in the deep branching eukaryote Giardia intestinalis
Nucleic Acids Res 35:4619-4628 (pdf)
33. Krull M, Petrusma M, Makalowski W, Brosius J, Schmitz J
Functional persistence of exonized Mammalian-wide Interspersed Repeat elements (MIRs)
Genome Res 17:1139-1145 (pdf)
32. Huchon D, Chevret P, Jordan U, Kilpatrick CW, Ranwez V, Jenkins PD, Brosius J, Schmitz J
Multiple molecular evidence for a living mammalian fossil
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:7495-7499 (pdf)
31. Kriegs JO, Churakov G, Jurka J, Brosius J, Schmitz J
Evolutionary history of 7SL RNA-derived SINEs in Supraprimates
- Glires and Euarchonta Phylogeny -
Trends Genet 23:158-161 (pdf)
30. Farwick A, Jordan U, Fuellen G, Huchon D,  Catzeflis F, Brosius J, Schmitz J
Automated scanning for phylogenetically informative transposed elements in rodents
Sys Biol 55:936-948 (pdf)
29. Kuryshev VY, Vorobyov E, Zink D, Schmitz J, Rozhdestvensky TS, Münstermann E, Ernst U, Wellenreuther R, Moosmayer P, Bechtel S, Schupp I, Hort J, Korn B, Poustka A, Wiemann S
An anthropoid-specific segmental duplication on human chromosome 1q22: Structure and evolution of the affected genes
Genomics 88:143-151 (pdf)
28. Zemann A, op de Bekke A, Kiefmann M, Brosius J, Schmitz J 
Evolution of small nucleolar RNAs in nematodes
Nucleic Acids Res 34:2676-2685 (pdf, supplemental data)
27. Kriegs JO, Churakov G, Kiefmann M, Jordan U,  Brosius J, Schmitz J 
Retropsosed elements as archives for the evolutionary history of placental  mammals
PLoS Biol 4:e91 (pdf, supplemental data)
26. Schmitz J, Piskurek O, Zischler H   
Forty million years of independent evolution: a mitochondrial gene and its  corresponding nuclear pseudogene in primates
J Mol Evol 61:1-11 (pdf, supplemental data)
25. Krull M, Brosius J, Schmitz J    
Alu-SINE exonization: en route to protein-coding function
Mol Biol Evol 22:1702-1711 (pdf, supplemental data)
24. Churakov G, Smit A, Brosius J, Schmitz J
A novel abundant family of transposable elements (DAS-SINEs) in the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus).
Mol Biol Evol 22:886-893 (pdf, supplemental data)
23. Ludwig A, Rozhdestvensky TS, Kuryshev V,  Schmitz J, Brosius J
An unusual primate locus that attracted two independent Alu insertions and facilitates their transcription.
J Mol Biol 350:200-214 (pdf)
22. Kriegs JO, Schmitz J, Makalowski W, Brosius J
Does the AD7c-NTP locus encode a protein?
BBA 1727:1-4 (pdf)
21. Schmitz J, Roos C, Zischler H
Primate phylogeny: Molecular evidence from retroposons
Cyt Genome Res 108:26-37 (pdf)
20. Schmitz J, Churakov G, Zischler H, Brosius J
A novel class of tailless retropseudogenes in mammalian genomes.
Genome Res 14:1911-1015 (pdf, supplemental data)
19. Singer SS, Maennel, DN, Hehlgans T, Brosius J, Schmitz J
From “junk“ to Gene: Curriculum vitae of a primate receptor isoform gene
J Mol Biol 341:883-886 (pdf)
18. Roos C, Schmitz J, Zischler H
Primate jumping genes elucidate strepsirrhine phylogeny
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:10650-10654 (pdf)
17. Schmitz J, Zischler H
Molecular cladistic markers and the infraordinal phylogenetic relationships of primates.
In: Anthropoid Origins: New Visions, Kay, RF, Ross, C (eds), Kluwer Academic Press, NY (information)
16. Schmitz J, Zischler H
A novel family of tRNA-derived SINEs in the colugo and two new retrotransposable markers separating dermopterans from primates
Mol Phyl Evol 28:341-349 (pdf)
15. Singer SS, Schmitz J, Schwiegk C, Zischler H
Molecular cladistic markers in New World monkey phylogeny (Platyrrhini, Primates)
Mol Phyl Evol 26:490-501 (pdf)
14. Herlyn H, Piskurek O, Schmitz J, Ehlers U, Zischler H
The syndermatan phylogeny and the evolution of acanthocephalan endoparasitism as inferred from 18S rDNA sequences
Mol Phyl Evol 26:155-164 (pdf)
13. Albert S, Schmitz J
Characterization of the major royal jelly family like DNA sequences in Apis dorsata
J Apic Res 41:75-82 (pdf)
12. Schmitz J, Ohme M, Suryobroto B, Zischler H
The colugo (Cynocephalus variegatus, Dermoptera): The Primates‘ gliding sister?
Mol Biol Evol 19:2308-2312 (pdf)
11. Schmitz J, Ohme M, Zischler H
The complete mitochondrial sequence of Tarsius bancanus: evidence for an extensive nucleotide compositional plasticity of primate mitochondrial DNA
Mol Biol Evol 19:544-553 (pdf)
10. Schmitz J, Ohme M, Zischler H
SINE insertions in cladistic analyses and the phylogenetic affiliations of Tarsius bancanus to other primates
Genetics 157:777-784 (pdf)
9. Schmitz J, Ohme M, Zischler H
The complete mitochondrial genome of Tupaia belangeri and the phylogenetic affiliation of Scandentia to other eutherian orders
Mol Biol Evol 17, 1334-1343 (pdf)
8. Schmitz J, Moritz RFA
Molecular evolution in social wasps. In: Hymenoptera: Evolution, biodiversity and biological control
Austin AD, Dowton M (eds) pp 84-89, CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood (information)
7. Weichhardt-Kulessa K, Börner T, Schmitz J, Müller-Doblies U, Müller-Doblies D
Controversial taxonomy of Strumariinae (Amaryllidaceae) investigated by nuclear rDNA (IST) sequences
Plant Syst Evol 223:1-13 (abstract)
6. Schmitz J, Moritz RFA
Sociality and the rate of rDNA sequence evolution in wasps (Vespidae) and honeybees (Apis)
J Mol Evol 47, 606-612 (pdf)
5. Schmitz J, Moritz RFA
Molecular phylogeny of Vespidae (Hymenoptera) and the evolution of sociality in wasps
Mol Phyl Evol 9:183-191 (pdf)
4. Schmitz J, Moritz RFA
Sequence analysis of the D1 and D2 regions of 28S rDNA in the hornet (Vespa crabro, Hymenoptera, Vespinae)
Insect Mol Biol 3:273-277 (pdf)
3. Schmitz J
Restriction enzyme analysis of mitochondrial DNA of wasps (Vespinae)
Apidologie 21:335-336
2. Schmitz J, Moritz RFA
Mitochondrial DNA variation in social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae)
Experientia 46:1068-1072 (pdf)
1. Schmitz J
Mitochondrial DNA in social wasps
Apidologie 20:529-531